affirmative action refers to the policies that take gender, race, or ethnicity into account in order to promote equal opportunity.
employers subject to title vii are prohibited from taking race or sex into account in any employment decisions. aa is a penalty for having any job group substantially statistically "underutilized" in any race or either sex. the employer must take steps to eliminate the underutilization, then stop, ending its aa efforts
according to the passage the most suitable options are two. the first one is "by leading the aef to victory in several key battles" like the battle of saint- mihiel and the battle of cantigny mentioned in the passage you copied here. the second one is "by the aef and allied forces defeat germany" since the passage says that his army destroy the german resistance in the meuse- argonne offensive. and also, "by insisting that the aef operate as an independent force".