mitosis: It is a process by which the duplicated genome in cell is separated into halves that are in nature.
It occur in three phases: interphases, karyokines and cytokinesis.
Cytokinesis: It is a process where the cytoplasm of cell divided two "daughter" cells.
It occur through two processes: in animals, in eukaryotic cell and one in plant cell.
Answer No 1:
a) The process of Calvin Cycle occurs during the time of bright sunlight. Calvin cycle is a process through which ATP and NADPH are utilized to make sugar from carbon dioxide molecules.
b) In darkness, the process of Calvin Cycle continues in the stroma. ATP and NADPH are used to convert carbon dioxide into water.
c) If a plant is kept in darkness for a long period of time, then the synthesis of light dependent products, ATP, would be less. As a result, the plant will not be able to carry out photosynthesis.
Answer No 2:
The products of glycolysis are 2 molecules of pyruvates, 2 molecules of NADH, and 2 molecules of ATP.
4 molecules of ATP are formed in total,out of which 2 molecules of ATP are lost.
The presence of oxygen acts as a signal to move pyruvate molecules into the organelle, mitochondria. As a result, 3 times more ATP are formed than the process of glycolysis. This process can be termed as cellular respiration.
Answer No 3:
Without the process of cytokinesis, the process of mitosis cannot take place. Mitosis can be described as a process of cell division by which 2 daughter cells are formed which are identical to the parent cell.
Cytokinesis can be described as the process of division of nucleus. If cytokinesis did not occur with mitosis then a single cell will end up having two nuclei.
If cytokinesis occurs but mitosis does not, then the cell willeither divide from the nucleus or a cell will be formed without the nucleus. In both cases, cell death would occur.
Answer No 4:
Similarity: The DNA in the embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells and skin cells of the same person would be similar. They will have the same chromosomes.
Embryonic stem cells have the capability to divide into every cell of the body. They are known to be pluripotent.
The adult stem cells cannot divide into every cell of the body, yet can divide into some cell types only. They are multipotent.
Skin cells can divide only into skin cells, not any other type of cells.
mitosis can only happen with cytokinesis. mitosis is the process in which a cell goes through to produce two new cell nuclei. cytokinesis is when the cytoplasm splits. without cytokinesis, mitosis would still happen but it would create 2 nuclei in one cell. and if cytokinesis happened and mitosis did not then the cell would most likely not survive.
the principle of segregation describes how pairs of gene variants are separated into reproductive cells. from his data, mendel formulated the principle of segregation. we now know that the segregation of genes occurs during meiosis in eukaryotes, which is a process that produces reproductive cells called gametes.